1) All the organic substances that exist in the soil are humus. This is an incorrect idea. There are 18 million organic substances in the world. Polymeric polyhydroxy acids, a group of these organic substances, are humic acids. They have a certain molecule like sugar. They have a polymer structure. Although there are thousands of other organic substances which are important in terms of physical and chemical structure of the soil, they do not carry out the functions of the humic acids. Only the soils with humus are known as the fertile soils.
2) Humic acid is hormone. Hormones are chemicals that form in the body of plants and other living things by themselves. If they do not form themselves, they can be given externally and thus normal development of the plants can be achieved. For instance gibberallic acid is a plant hormone. Seedless grape can not produce this hormone. Thus in the cultivation of seedless grape, use of gibberallic acid increases both the quality and the fertility. Humic acids can not be produced in the body of the plant and they can not be passed into the plant body. Their functions are only in the soil. For this reason, humic acids are not hormones. On the occasion that they do not exist in the soil, they should be added into the soil and they make the nutritive substances of the soil transfered into the body of the plant though the roots. By doing this, they cause the formation of healthy plants and products. Please refer to (Hasat, number: 204, page: 46, May 2002) for their benefits for the soil and the plants.
3) Is the rate of humic acid 5% in dung? The analyses carried out so far have indicated that there is no humic acid in dung. The nutrients are converted into hydrocarbones in the animal stomach which are fed with grass and straw containing cellulose and lignin. In this stage humic acids do not form. For this reason, there is no humic acid in animal dung. However the use of animal dung can be fruitful for the soil due to the fact that they change the physical features of the soil and to some extent they include the nutritive substances of the soil.
4) Is torf a source of humic acid? There is humic acid about 1-5 % in torf which forms as a conclusion of the decomposition of fresh water plants in an unairadet environment, under pressure and by means of bacteria during 50 -69 thousand years. There are other nutrients in it since it is a plant residue. For this reason, its use in agriculture is beneficial. It should be used after cost- benefit analysis.
5) Does humic acid decompose in 2 years? Production and distribution of humic acids in our country is subject to the license that is granted by the Directorate General of Protection Controls, Ministry of Agriculture of Turkish Republic. The concerned authority unfortunately considers these beneficial chemicals in the category of chemical preparation. In other developed or developing countries, humic acids are accepted as the fertilizer aid and soil- improving substance. Due to this mistaken attitude of the ministry, it is obligatory to put production date and last use date on the label of the product. In addition these dates are limited with two years. However humic acids are chemical substances that form in 1.5-2.5 million years and stable in packed or in soil and a decomposition problem does not exist.
This mistaken attitude of the Ministry makes the cost increase and the price excessive. This is inevitably reflected to both the farmer and the salesmen.
6) Are all coals are humic acid? This natural substance, which is known as coal, forms in unairated environment after being decomposed by the help of bacteria, and experiencing structural transformation under high pressure. This formation takes between 1 to 300 million years. Despite the fact that first decomposition products are rich in humic acid, the rate of the humic acid decreases while the product is aging and black coal does not include humic acid. The young turb is richer in humic acid. They are called as leonardite. These are used as raw material in the production of humic acid.
7) Does plant residue include humic acid? Plant residues are very useful for the soil. They have been used by the farmers of the developed countries as the green fertilizer. They increase the amount of the organic substance in the soil. Acidic products are formed due to the decomposition in the open air and this decreases the pH of the soil. They also provide conservation in fertilizer use as they include macro and micro nutritive elements. But despite all these benefits, decomposition products do not have humic acid. As stated above, they are natural products that form in 1.5-3 million years as a result of a decomposition of plant residue in an unventilated environment firstly by the help of the bacteria, then under continuous pressure.