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Early agricultural communities settled on the river deltas and started cultivating the soil and developed huge civilizations. River deltas are the most appropriate places for agriculture. Cultivation fields are renewed with the nutrients carried by the overflowing water every year. In addition, in heavily forested areas, fertile soils were formed with humus, which forms in millions of years. Soil with humus which means fertile soil has been used for years. It used to be predicted that humus has connection with the soil due to its organic ingredients. Studies that have been conducted since 1850s have showed that humus is a chemical substance that has a closed formula C52H46O10 (OCH3) COOH(OH) 4C = NRCOOH from the group of Polymeric Polyhydroxi acid which is an organic substance. In the last 50 years, importance of humus in soil and its effects on the plants have been investigated.
BENEFITS OF HUMUS FOR SOIL
It increases the water retention capacity of the soil. It increases the resistance of the soil against drought and it also increases the productivity when the amount of rain or the irrigation is not sufficient. It makes the cultivation of the soil easier. It holds very tiny soil pieces together and thus decreases erosion. Due to its high ion change capacity of the soil, it helps the plant make better use of the chemical fertilizers and prevents them from going away from the roots. It also makes the calcium carbonate give carbon dioxide and helps it pass into the body of the plant. It protects the plant root by coming into reaction with the salt precipitate. In alkali soils, it decreases pH of the soil, whereas in acidic soils it increases the pH. It prevents the plant from being poisoned, by absorbing the aluminum in the acidic soil. It increases the drainage of the soil. It prevents hardening of the soil. It prevents the chemical fertilizers abandon the soil. By doing this, it decreases the cost of the chemical fertilizers. It accelerates the decomposition of the chemicals such as Pesticide, Herbicide, Fungicide, which poisons the soil. It also increases the bacterium activity of the soil.

BENEFITS OF HUMUS FOR THE PLANT

It makes the micro elements appear, which are in a form in the soil that can not be received by the plants, are absorbed by the plant and thus increases the nourishment. It prevents decay of plant in the accumulated water in the areas where there is heavy rain. It increases the sugar amount of the fruit and vegetables. It increases the speed of seed sprout. It forms a seed which is stronger and developing faster. It helps the plant develop after crushing and reaping. It accelerates the development of the root system of the plant. It overcomes the damages caused by the excessive nutritive substances in the soil, such as bor poisoning. Humus (humic Acids) is widely used in the world for the purpose of improving an infertile soil. The fact that organic substance deficiency is a general characteristic of the soils in Turkey shows that productivity can be increased by improving the soils. When the yield taken from a decare in Turkey compared with those in develeopped countries are compared (as it can be seen in the table), humus deficiency is lower in Turkey against other factors such as seed improvement. This indicates the importance of the humus deficiency.


Yield per decare (kg)

PRODUCT TURKEY GERMANY
Wheat 120-150 600-800
Sugar beed 5000-8000 16000-18000


Due to the incorrect use of chemical fertilizers, phosphate accumulation causes low yield in our fields. On a soil improved by humus, cultivation of several years without using 20+20+0 fertilizer, excessive phosphate can be decreased.
When we analyze the polymeric polyhydroxy acids which are widely referred as humus, we see that they are divided into three groups. The group that dissolves on the base is called humic acid, the group that dissolves in acid and base is called fulvic acid and the other group that dissolves in alcohol is called ulmic acid. This chemical substance can be used not only in agriculture, but also in various industrial fields such as purification of waste water, leather-related works, drillingand, rubber production.
It is not possible to produce humic acids in a laboratory synthetically. It naturally exists in torf (forms when fresh water plants remain and decompose in an unairated setting for 50-60 thousand years), in leonardite (forms when plant residues decompose in an unairated setting for 1.5-3 million years), also in heavily forested areas. The humic acid rate is 0.1-0.5% in forest soil, 2-8 % in torf and 20-40% in leonardite. Humic acids being used in agriculture are made of leonardite. Those with tiny molecules are more beneficial in agriculture.
Humic acids are weak acids and they do not dissolve in water. In order to make them dissolve in water, they need to be converted into sodium or potassium salt. They can be prepared at the most 12-15% although their solubility increases. with temperature. At higher percentage, they have gelatinous nature as it absorbs a big amount of water and they are not fluid. This is why only their solution forms 12% or their solid form 85% are marketed in the markets.
Leaf fertilizers are marketed for the deficiency of micro nutritive substances such as zinc, iron, magnesium and bor and they are used as a seasonal solution. Delta Agricultural Chemicals Industry and Trade Inc. Co. produces these micro nutrients as humic acid chelate and thus solves the problem of micro nutrient deficiency permanently in addition to improving the soil.
The objective of our company is to provide absolute solution to problems pertaining to the soil. The target is to increase the output, by decreasing the costs. The production is made in a closed area of 2500 m2 which was built on an area of 100000 m2 in the Yozgat Organized Industrial Zone. We make contribution to the domestic production by providing humic acid and its derivations. Our company has a countrywide marketing network with its distributers and dealers


 
    

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